During Medieval times, criminals or those disloyal or wrongly accused often didn’t get a trial and if they did have a form of a trial, safe to say there were no appeals if found guilty. Instead, they were persecuted via torture.
Years ago, I visited a torture museum in Amsterdam. They had all the “classics,” but there was one that stuck with me, it was called The Saw. It was just a very long saw, the kind that takes two people to use, like lumberjacks use to chop down big trees. The picture accompanying it had nothing to do with lumberjacks. Again, The Saw stayed with me. There is something about these devices that are especially disturbing and personal.